top of page

A Timeline of Israel's History

Israel has had, to say the least, an interesting history. Today, we'll be discussing some of the most important events in Israel's history.


Independence


The British ruled for 25 years on Mandatory Palestine, originally established under Article 22 of the Covenant of the League of Nations in 1923, which states that former Ottoman Empire territories will be governed under a mandate until they can sustain themselves.

However, Great Britain , in 1947, started withdrawing from their territory. This was due to the large number of Jewish immigrants from Europe post the holocaust and World War II.

In 1947, when withdrawal started, the UN was uncharge of drawing up borders for the the future of the nation, which is why they drew up an Arab and Jewish state, a plan which was rejected by leaders of the respective sides. This was followed by a civil war , between the Arab league and Israel. Eventually, this became a sort of, 'disputed' border, one neither side agreed to.


In 1948, an all out war between Israel and the Arab League took place for the same issue of wanting each others' destruction. Both sides has some gains. Israel gained West Jerusalem and other parts of Palestine, while Jordan gained the whole West Bank.


Suez Canal Crisis

1956


This war was between the western nations of Britain and France, allied with Israel against Egypt. Egypt had recently nationalised the Suez Canal and declared it their own, however, this canal was extremely important for European nations for shipment and trade and was a major part of their economy. To regain control, Britain, France and Israel came up with a tactic inn which Israel would invade Sinai, and Britain and France would call for ceasefire. When Egypt would refuse to do so, as the allied side already knew, Britain and France would revise and attack , and gain control of the situation.


Due to international pressure, anglo-french and Israeli forces were forced to retreat and UNEF soldiers arrived on scene to control the situation. Despite the coalition's victory, many believe this was the end of Britain's role as a superpower as its connections with its empire in the east diminished, as well as economy and trade fell (due to limited access to the canal) to pave way for its successor, the United States of America.


6-day War

5-10th June, 1967


On 30th May, 1967, Egypt and Jordan signed a defence pact. The day after, Iraq began shifting squadrons and deploying troops in Jordan, with prior permission of Jordan. Additionally, Egypt also send a contingent on this day to Jordan. Israel, evidently worried, set up there own extended cabinet on the 1st of June and their cabinet made the decision to eventually chose to go to war on the 4th of June.


Israel carried out a surprise air strike on the 5th of June, with highly trained pilots and engineers, who had the capacity of refitting aircrafts to perform 4 sorties a day. The Jordan airbase had picked up Israeli aircraft entering Egypt on the 5th of June and though this message was relayed to Egypt immediately, lack of logistical equipment and continuous failures meant that they couldn't receive this message. Israel immediately abolished all runways with permanent damage as well as causing severe damage to aircraft, therefore all but eliminating any chance of aerial superiority by the Arab League.


On the 8th of June, Israel debated wether Golan Heights should also be invaded. Although Syria wasn't a participant in war, they had been helpful to the Arab league in pre-war raids. After arguments, it was eventually decided that Golan Heights must be invaded.Over the next 2 days, Israeli soldiers fought an uphill battle against a fortified Syrian Army and found themselves victorious and they gained The Golan Heights.


By the end of the battle, in a mere 6 days, the Arab League had faced humiliating defeat, with Israel gaining West Bank, Sinai, Gaza & the Golan Heights.


Annexations

1980 & 1981


In 1980, Israel's Knesset passed a law to annex East-Jerusalem officially into its territory.

srael declared it as their undivided capital but this is officially only recognised by the United States. This move was obviously against international law and regulation. However, Israel chose to ignore such conventions , resolutions and documents, as it had done repeatedly in the past and chose to annex. Another proof of Israel's disregard for International law comes in the fact that it had also been promoting people to go to the West Bank and live there, with business incentives, and better infrastructure. Large and small settlements began to form which was a direct violation of the 4th Geneva convention which said that the ruling country's citizens can't live in occupied territory.These people even started to be called settlers and are recognised illegal by the international community.


In 1981, Israel's Knesset passed a law to annex the Golan Heights officially and incorporate it into its governance, again a violation of international law and a act heavily condemned. The Golan Heights are still thought to be part of Syria by most of the International community.


Intifada

1980's (First Intifada)

2000-2005 (Second Intifada)


The First Intifada was an outbreak of rebels in Palestine who were against the Israeli governments actions and occupation of their territory. Although initially, this started with minor violence, it turned out to become a major conflict with Israeli Soldiers being called to maintain the situation through force.


The First Intifada made both the PLO and the Israeli government realise the requirement for peace over violence and thus began negotiations, the first step of which was the signing of the Oslo Accords of 1983.


This was followed by the Second Camp David meet in 2000, however this bore no fruit. These actions towards peace, were greatly opposed from leaders on both sides, leading to the formation of a extremist group Hamas, who broke off from the PLO. This showed the world a dynamic existent even today ; both sides will use violence and/or any other means possible for the others total destruction. Each side had no room for negotiation.


After the camp David summit II, Palestinians started to believe that peace was impossible, so they rose up , into the Second Intifada, this one much more violent. After the outbreak od the Second Intifada, Israeli people became sceptical and started to believe that no change is coming soon, and instead of trying to solve the problem, they started to just control it. Extra security, road obstacles, large walls, just to protect its people for security and try to control the situation. They created barriers and just tried to maintain the people and stop riots. No further negotiations, meets, actions were taken, proving that at this point, they had lost all hope of an agreement.


Israel left Gaza and withdrew its claims and governance after the Second Intifada. Hamas gained control after a short civil war with the PLO (Palestinian liberation Organisation). Wary, Israel suffocates the extremist group with a blockade hoping it would leave them weak and at a losing position.This move increased unemployment and drastically decreased the economic value and gross product, leaving Hamas with a territory with next to no potential.


Trump's Peace Plan

Present


The Trump administration and Israel have being drawing borders and plans for a possible annexation of The Jordan Valley, almost 30% of the West Bank. For more information , read our blog post here.


Till Next Time,


~Nehal Singhal









Comentários


bottom of page